TCU Exhibition
During TCU exhibition held at Karimjee on 20-22 July 2016
SNAL
Sokoine National Agricultural Library
ABCD Training workshop
ABCD Training workshop continue at SNAL Computer laboratory from 6th to 10th July 2015. It is facilitated by Prof. Egbert de Smert from Universiteit Antwerpen of Belgium. Participants are from following universities libraries: SUA, IRDP - Dodoma, Mzumbe, Nelson Mandela - Arusha, Mweka, Jordan and Muslim University of Morogoro.
SNAL hosts workshop on organization structure
Prospective external stake holders and some of the SNAL staff members
TaCCIRe Workshop
Stakeholders workshop on communicating research output through climate change repository -TaCCIRe under CCIAM programme at SUA.
Dodoma study tour
Our 2015/2016 1st year and some of the 2015/2016 2nd year Diploma students at the Dodoma National Records Centre
LibHub Training Workshop
LibHub training workshop at SNAL, Salam Baker Shanawa from Sempertool, Denmark and Kamran Nain from California facilitating. Participants are from MUHAS - Dsm, Mzumbe University - Morogoro, St. Augustine - Mwanza, IFM - Dsm and SUA, SNAL Morogoro attend.
LibHub Training Workshop
LibHub training workshop continuing at SNAL.
SNAL hosts workshop on organization structure
Prospective external stake holders and some of the SNAL staff members
Dodoma study tour
Our 2015/2016 1st year and some of the 2015/2016 2nd year Diploma students, a long with them are two of SNAL academic staff members; Ms. Annajoyce and Mr. Msungu.
Dodoma study tour
Our diploma students in Dodoma during their study visit, exchanging ideas with one of the Dodoma National Records Centre employee

Phrase query

This is the use of quotation marks (" ") to locate documents with distinctive string of words or phrases such as “food security”, “climate change”, “tomato pests in Tanzania”. If a phrase is not specified in a search statement, the default search is one in which any of the words may be present. This can lead to thousands of useless hits.

Boolean searching

Much electronic searching is based on the Boolean logic. This refers to the logical relationship among search terms and it consists of three logical operators: OR, AND, NOT. However, most search engines tend to use arithmetic operators/ templates/statements in the place of conventional Boolean operators. For example:

  • Most search engines use AND as default. That means a space between search terms defaults to AND
  • + is sometimes similar to AND
  • - is similar to NOT
  • Some databases offer search templates whereby users choose Booleans from a menu
  • Logical operators can be expressed with substitute language (e.g. Google advanced search)

AND: This operator retrieves documents in which ALL search terms are present. It tends to narrow down a search and make it focused. For example, the search query environment AND development AND poverty retrieves documents that contain all three words i.e. development, environment and poverty.

OR: This operator retrieves records that contain EITHER of the search terms. Since it broadens a search and make it less focused, this operator is often used when searching for synonyms. For example, the search query “poultry diseases” OR “chicken diseases” retrieves documents that contain either of the search terms.

NOT: This operator excludes documents that contain the keywords you do not want. It retrieves your first word but excludes the second. For example, “gender violence” NOT children retrieves documents that contain only the term “gender violence” but not children.

Search limits

There are search operators that work with several search engines to help you refine your search. It is important to observe the syntax when using these operators. For example, these search operators should be written in lower case. Sometimes there no spaces between the operators and search terms. Such operators include:

  • intitle: This restricts results to those with specified term in the title. For example, the search query intitle:sunflowerretrieves documents with the word sunflower in the titles.Use allintitle for two and more terms e.g. allintitle:comparative embryology.
  • allintext: This searches for multiple words in the body of the search result. E.g.allintext:fruit vegetable cultivation
  • filetype:This restricts results to files ending in various formats such as doc, xls, ppt, pdf, rtf. For example, the search query “vertebrate anatomyfiletype:pdf retrieves only pdf documents that contain the phrasevertebrate anatomy.
  • inurl: This restricts the results to websites that have the term in the address (URL). g. inurl:pasture. Use allinurlfor multiple words.
  • site: This restrict your search results to the site you specify. For example, the query climate change site:www.fao.org retrieves documents with the terms climate and change only from the FAO website.
  • define: This searches for definitions of words from various web sources. E.g. define:globalization
  • It is possible to combine various search operators. g. allintitle:climate change filetype:pdf
  • Some search engines provide tools to restrict your search according to date, geographical location, author, language, usage rights, safe search.

Truncation and Wild Card symbols

In some cases, search engines just search for exactly what you type in. Truncation and wild card symbols can be used to overcome this limitation. These symbols can be substituted for letters to retrieve variant spellings and word endings. Truncation symbols differ depending on database, but mainly an asterisk (*) is used. E.g. agricultur* will retrieve documents with the terms agriculture, agricultural, agriculturalist. However, a number of web search engines such as Google do not allow wildcards to be used for variable ends of words.Instead, such engines search for all possible word variations. Some databases support truncation in phrases. For example, searching the query “poverty * strategies" retrieves documents that contain the phrases poverty reduction strategies,poverty alleviation strategies, poverty elimination strategies.

Please download our compendium for more search techniques.